Galileo Galilei was a scientist that lived during the Renaissance. His astronomical observations fundamentally changed the way we view the universe. Among his contributions was the discovery of the four largest moons of Jupiter, now called the Galilean moons. His support of the heliocentric model of the solar system caused much controversy, and he was tried by the Roman Inquisition. He was sentenced to house arrest on June 22, 1633, a sentence which remained in effect until his death in 1642.
An unmanned spacecraft was named Galileo in his honor. It arrived at Jupiter in 1995 and remained in orbit until 2003. The spacecraft was deteriorating, and it was decided to intentionally crash it into Jupiter itself to prevent contamination of any of Jupiter's moons, some of which may harbor life.
Rocket Shop Galileo was a science fiction novel by Robert A Heinlein.
In Star Trek, several shuttles were named Galileo. Galileo Galilei was mentioned in several episodes, and in one episode title.
The name Galileo is of Latin origin and means 'from Galilee.' In 2014, 20 boys in the U.S. were named Galileo.